1) This was water dammed back in the goit or mill-race by an obstruction or overflow.

When that happened it could impede the revolution of the mill wheel and at such times normal working might have to be suspended. References are rare but the cutlers’ records mention an agreement in 1680 Not to debar from grinding or glaseing at wheels in the forbidden hours, when there is scarcity of water or back water. Backwater could also create problems for works upstream.

dates 1680

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