1) The word formerly used for aliens from the east, that is Germans, Dutchmen and in particular Hanse merchants based in the Baltic. The OED states that this meaning seems not to have been found before the sixteenth century but there are regular references in York from two centuries earlier.

1349 Gocelinus del Haghe, esterling, York. The complaints of York merchants against their foreign competitors have a familiar ring: 1482 the Estyrlyngs cumys in to thys pairts and has their fre bying and fre selyng and that the ynglish marchaunts cannot so hav in thar cuntreis, York

1496 diverse of our subgietts declared certain gret wrongs and injuries doon unto them by the said Esterlings, York.

places York
dates 1349 1482 1496

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