1) A threatened penalty or fine, to be paid for an offence.
It is found from an early date in manorial court rolls, where the threatened ‘pains’ were listed, usually in Latin. It could be a noun or a verb: 1549 Item pena posita est qd ... or Item penat’ est qd ... Lepton. English examples of the word are less common: c.1488 commaundyng them ... to appere before youre highnes ... at a certen day upon a certen peyn as shalbe lymyted, Markington
1584 under a payne to repaire their porcons of the same damme, Wakefield
1688 Paines layd by the Constable and sworn men, Holme.