1) Slaty debris, shale or flakes. Shivers of hard stone had a market value.

1432 De 2s de Thoma Mix pro quadam porcione de shyvers, York. In coal-mining contexts the word is referred to in 1708, in The Compleat Collier, and also in a letter written to Thomas Metcalfe: 1746 whether it is all clean coal or mixed with shiver as the outbreak was I cannot tell, Askrigg.

places York Askrigg
dates 1432 1708 1746

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