1) One who has oversight of something, a word on record from the mid-fifteenth century (OED).
It came into prominence nationally via the Act of 1555 which made provision for the election of twoo honest persons ... to be surveyours ... of the highways. Previously, in 1531, Justices of Peace had been given the power to name and appoint two surveyors who would be responsible for the maintenance of bridges. They had to be substantial and indifferent persons who would view a bridge and then consult with skilful workmen to determine what sum of money would be needed for its repair. The number of surveyors later appears to have been increased, and their status reviewed, for at the Quarter Sessions in Richmond in 1607, four gentlemen were nominated to take survey of decayed Bridges in Richmondshire. Later still the post would be salaried and the bridge surveyor himself had the power to order repairs. In 1710, it was noted at the West Riding Quarter Sessions that Mr William Ettie was offering himself as surveyor of bridges.