1) In a mine this was the top of a working or gallery.
In 1708, in the north-east, it was thought best to ‘leave perhaps about a Foot thick of the Coal top for a Roof’ but that would not have been possible where the seams that were being worked were thin. Roof falls killed and injured many miners: 1575 Thomas Boothe by sodeyne mischaunce was slayne in a cole pytte, the roofe falling upon hym, Almondbury
1682 John Green of Bradforthe, Collyer, by accident … is maymed in one of his armes by the fall of a greatt Stone in the Coale Myne
1755 Thomas Pickering was working in a Colepit and the roof of Cole fell upon him … about a tun weight … and he was dead when they found him. Roof falls also made the getting of coal more difficult so it is not surprising that roof maintenance was stressed in contracts. In 1666, Mr Beaumont leased a pit in South Crosland to three sinkers and required them to leave the Roofes … where they have gotten and under myned for cooles in sufficient repaire as shall be thought fittinge. This was not simply trusted to the colliers for it was stipulated that their work should be examined by two work men to be made choyse of.