1) A word with several meanings, but commonly a type of windlass used in coal-mining.
It was described by Wright as a drum turned by means of a handle: a rope passed round the drum and a wagon was attached to each end, so that as the full one was drawn up an empty one descended. The documentary evidence dates from the seventeenth century: 1655 the Roule and Turne, geares and other utensils, Sharlston
1666 two turns three Roopes, South Crosland
1710 paid for turnestakes making and other wright worke, Farnley
1715 agreed … to sinke a pitt at Wood to sett on Turne Stakes, Farnley. Although it was a primitive method it remained in occasional use well into the nineteenth century, as in 1831 when a pit was sunk in Meltham and Ropes, turn, gins were among the items listed. ‘Turn’ occurs earlier in lead-mining records: 1630 findeth all wood to timber the groves, and for turns, corves etc, Grassington
1687 8 turn trees and other grove tools, Kettlewell. In the cutlery industry it was apparently a lathe worked by a treadle, and in 1702 a cutler called Samuel Bothomley possessed two Foot turnes and one old wheele Turne .