turn

1) A word with several meanings, but commonly a type of windlass used in coal-mining.

It was described by Wright as a drum turned by means of a handle: a rope passed round the drum and a wagon was attached to each end, so that as the full one was drawn up an empty one descended. The documentary evidence dates from the seventeenth century: 1655 the Roule and Turne, geares and other utensils, Sharlston

1666 two turns three Roopes, South Crosland

1710 paid for turnestakes making and other wright worke, Farnley

1715 agreed … to sinke a pitt at Wood to sett on Turne Stakes, Farnley. Although it was a primitive method it remained in occasional use well into the nineteenth century, as in 1831 when a pit was sunk in Meltham and Ropes, turn, gins were among the items listed. ‘Turn’ occurs earlier in lead-mining records: 1630 findeth all wood to timber the groves, and for turns, corves etc, Grassington

1687 8 turn trees and other grove tools, Kettlewell. In the cutlery industry it was apparently a lathe worked by a treadle, and in 1702 a cutler called Samuel Bothomley possessed two Foot turnes and one old wheele Turne .

spellings well turn turn-sake
dates 1630 1655 1666 1687 1702 1710 1715

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