1) Steel imported from Central Europe.
The influence of Continental metal workers is a recurring theme in the history of the iron and steel industry in Yorkshire, starting with tradesmen from Germany in the lists of York freemen: 1350 Goddescalcus de Smith-husen
1393 Arnaldus de Colonia, armorer
1446 Andreas la Monere, fynour. German steel, or ‘Cullen’ steel were terms used for the steels imported from Central Europe from the late fifteenth century, shortly after the introduction of the blast furnace. In 1681, German steel was sold to scissorsmiths from the common storehouse that had been set up by the Cutlers’ Company in Sheffield, and in 1702 the inventory of a local cutler, Thomas Pearson, included A parcel of German Steel in his smithy.