1) A word used in connection with water-powered mills, first noted in the OED in 1793.

Presumably, the ‘pen’ was the dam or store of water and the trough was a channel or conduit between the head of the water and the overshot wheel, capable of being closed by a ‘shuttle’ or penstock. Examples are late: 1791 to make a water wheel 20ft high and 5ft wide and … make a large pentrough, Beeston

1811 Pd Joseph Mitchel for New Shuttles, Penn Trough and other jobs about the same, Meltham.

places Beeston
sources Denison papers
dates 1791

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