1) Used for grinding, typically for malt, mustard or pepper.
1410 de j pari peperquernis, York
1444 j maskefatt cum j par qwernes, Beverley
1455 j parr qwerens, Bossall
1485 duo paria pepyr-qwernys, ijd, York
1518 on par of whernes, Barkston
1558 a paire of corne whernes, Whitkirk
1561 The Kytching ... one pair of whearnes, Spaldington
1570 a payer of whernes, South Cave. Note: 1575 one pare of whernestones, South Cave.. A Sheffield boxmaker named William Harrison made smoothing-irons, and in his smithy in 1692 were the usual bellows, stithy, vices, hammers and tongs, plus a paire of Quernes . If these were not for domestic purposes, that is grinding corn, mustard or pepper, it is difficult to say what their function might have been as smithy gear.