1) The OED has ‘throw’ as a word for a fault, ‘a dislocation in a vein or stratum in which the part on one side of the fracture is displaced up or down’.
Three examples from 1796 are listed, including one from a Yorkshire glossary. The following earlier items refer to efforts made in a Tong coal-pit when the miners encountered such a fault: 1760 Pd Jos. Cowburn for going down the throw down
1761 5 days taking up level from the throw up
1763 Jas Barker 1˝ day trying the throw down
Jonas Binns three days trying the throw up, Tong. Confusingly, the verb ‘to throw up’ was commonly used also to mean to dig or delve, as in the following extract from turnpike accounts: 1779 To William Mallinson, about throwing up a Ditch near Ingbirchworth Turnpike to prevent people from evading the tolls. Similarly in a coal-pit: 1761 throwing up an open tail, Tong.
2) This was a noun used of objects found in cutlers’ smithies.
In 1699, William Sherman had a screwthrow and a foot throw in his Work Chamber, and in 1717 George Cartwright possessed two old throws in his tiphouse. The exact meaning of the term in a cutlery context is uncertain but some ‘throws’ were hand-operated lathes which turned objects that were being shaped. These throws may therefore have been used to make knife hafts, employing different methods.
3) To turn on a lathe.
1617 they will thraw and make such at Robert Peckett’s in Stillington, Brandsby
1663 pro wheelbands for throwing the bannesters, Ripon. The adjective was used to describe items of furniture, particularly chairs: 1490 a thrawen boxe of tre, York
1499 a trawn chaer, Wighill
1547 a pare of thrawen bedstokkes, Lead Hall
1568 4 square throwne cubbordes, Healaugh
1699 six thrown chears, Meltham.