Originally a withe or withy, that is a tough, flexible but slender branch of a willow or osier, used as a tie or shackle, presumably attached to the ‘tug’ on a working horse. It was later applied to an iron chain which had the same function.
Originally a carpet woven in one piece of richly-coloured wools and having a deep pile, imported from Turkey or woven elsewhere in imitation of the style: often a table covering. Later the word was applied more loosely to a variety of imitative fabrics.
From the mis-division of a noumpere; that is non-equal. An umpire was one who acted as an impartial third party in a dispute, making a decision on behalf of one of the contestants. The act of umpiring and the decision were referred to as umpirage.
Most of the meanings given to this word emphasise its military or negative aspects, literally and figuratively. However, when used in some mining leases it could refer simply to a method of ‘winning’ coals underground.