This French word is found from 1359-60 in building accounts, mostly in connection with churches where it was used for the shaped vault stones of an arch. It must also have been used of arches in bridge building but is not recorded in that sense in the OED until 1739.
These were names given to artificial colliery roads, designed to allow horses to draw heavy loads more easily. They were made of rails, originally of wood but then of iron, laid on timber sleepers and they were in use in Yorkshire collieries from the eighteenth century.
In the period when cock-fighting flourished it was customary for the birds to be placed in the care of tenants. The practice was referred to as ‘walking’ the cocks and it became part of tenancy agreements.
A pliant shoot or sapling used in basket-making, wattle work, etc. They were commonly of willow and hazel and would occur naturally, but the evidence suggests that they were also deliberately cultivated, in riverside locations or in reserved woods.
The ‘wapentakes’ were formerly the subdivisions of the three Yorkshire Ridings, districts which were equivalent to the ‘hundreds’ in most parts of England. The word is of Old Norse origin and it reflects Danish influence in the county in the centuries before the Norman Conquest. Wapentake bridges were therefore bridges maintained at the expense of the Wapentake and not the Riding. The status of a bridge could change, for various reasons, and local interests could influence that.