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The dialect form of ‘among’.
places Heptonstall
dates 1507

In some contexts this meant ‘dazed’ or ‘bewildered’.
places Halifax Idle
dates 1672 1690

spellings awlmar awmer lawmber
The translucent fossil resin, imported from the Baltic and much used in jewellery.
dates 1389 1392 1401 1434 1453 1463 1524 1551

spellings ambling nawmbling hawmelinge halmelyng
Of horses, to have a smooth, even gait.
dates 1472 1505 1552 1556 1559

A horse that ‘ambles’, that is has a smooth gait.
places Healaugh
dates 1402 1444

spellings aumbry nambry namery hawmberr almery
A pantry or cupboard, used mainly for storing food.
dates 1389 1462 1524 1549 1551 1578

spellings amel
Possibly spellings of amyl; that is starch, finest flour (OED).
places Almondbury
dates 1590

To improve or bring into a better state, one of several related meanings (OED).
places Fewston
dates 1542

spellings amerciament mercyant
In the manorial system this was a payment imposed on an offender by his peers, after which he stood at the mercy of the lord: it differed from a fine in that it was imposed at the discretion of the court (TWH26/7n).
dates 1250 1582 1674

This was usually a white cloth worn by priests on the neck, in conjunction with the alb.
dates 1435 1524 1535 1567

A maker of anchors.
places Scarborough Hull
dates 1391 1432 1522 1585 1588 1593

A bar at the upper end of an anchor, at right angles to the shank, designed so that one or other of the arms strikes into the ground.
places Hull York
dates 1527-1537 1697-1698

This was a feature of the open fireplace, a fire-dog, one of a pair with horizontal bars which supported burning logs.
dates 1310 1380 1481 1542

According to Halliwell this was said of an animal that brought forth one young at a time.
places Brayton
dates 1658

spellings anenst
Could mean 'against' as in, 'side by side with' or 'next to' but in the sixteenth century was used in the sense of 'towards' or 'with regards to'.
dates 1420 1443 1481 1520 1552 1556 1570 1584 1590 1782

A gold coin.
dates 1532 1552 1557 1591 1612

spellings newitie
An annual allowance or income, occasionally abbreviated.
places Hipswell
dates 1559

spellings antiphonary
A book which contained a collection of antiphons, which were verses or sentences sung by a choir, or by two choirs as responses.
dates 1413 1435 1524 1530

Occupational term for the maker of anvils.
places Sheffield
dates 1720 1744

spellings postle spoons
Sets of silver spoons which have figures of the apostles on the end.
dates 1540 1555 1567 1578 1600

dates 1658 1691-1692 1692

An officer of an ecclesiastical or civil court.
places Wragby
dates 1604

spellings aprewayr
For ‘napery’, that is household linen.
dates 1532 1557

The bloom of the apple or the blossom of the tree.
dates 1320 1341 1392

A word not noted elsewhere, probably a framed container in which apples were stored.
dates 1564 1605 1676

spellings apprize praise prisyd
To assign a money value to an item.
dates 1555 1559

A learner of a craft, bound by legal agreement to serve for a specified number of years.
places York
dates 1514-1515

spellings aperance apparone apperone
From Old French naperon, a diminutive of nape meaning table-cloth.
dates 1556 1615 1638

spellings rough arch
A ‘bowed’ or curved structure, a word recorded frequently in bridge documents.
dates 1422 1486 1619 1687

Arable land left fallow or ploughed land ready for sowing.
dates 1526 1554 1571 1613 1634 1642

In a nineteenth-century urban context this was the space in front of a basement dwelling, accessible by a flight of steps and with iron railings at pavement level.
dates 1859


spellings narke arke
A large wooden chest or coffer used to store food, especially malt or meal.
dates 1341 1419 1535 1549 1551 1573 1614 1628 1647 1748

spellings earls yarls yerls
Small sums of money, paid over to secure a bargain, especially on the hiring of labourers or the purchase of hay or animals, so the word overlapped in meaning with ‘earnest money’ or ‘festing penny’.
dates 1612 1652 1755 1763-1778

An occupational term noted in the records of the Cliffords of Skipton.
places Skipton
dates 1643

spellings arraswork
A rich tapestry fabric, or hangings made from such fabric. It owed its name to the town of Arras in Artois where it was manufactured.
dates 1381 1392 1434 1485 1508 1513

spellings arrasman
Occupational terms for makers of arras, the tapestry made famous in France.
places York
dates 1413

The meaning ‘to impound goods or take them as security’ was formerly not uncommon.
dates 1524 1676

spellings arris
Perhaps the sore edges of a wound.
places Wakefield
dates 1524

A maker of iron arrow-heads, like ‘arrowsmith’. The shaft and the head of an arrow were made by different workmen, and the heads were the responsibility of a specialist smith.
dates 1200-1299 1257-1258 1401-1402 1500 1541-1542 1556 1558 1593

A maker of iron arrow-heads; an earlier form of ‘arrow-head smith’.
dates 1337 1350 1356 1379

In general use for the buttocks of an animal or the hinder end of an object.
dates 1200-1299 1342 1513 1594 1615 1642

A wake or funeral feast.
dates 1499 1542 1702


A tree with compound leaves, which when felled provides a hard pale timber.
dates 1292-1293 1422 1565 1599-1600 1617 1625

A person who burns ‘ashes’, that is produces potash, principally as a lye for soap-making.
dates 1308 1339 1462 1586 1587 1644 1715 1755

spellings ash-hole ash house ash-pit
These are all places where ashes accumulated or could be placed.
places Calverley
dates 1738

In Old French, aissellier could refer to an axle: it derived from the Latin word axill?ris, a diminutive of ‘axis’ which also had those meanings.
dates 1412 1494 1558 1602 1616 1622


spellings aspen
The common aspen, a member of the poplar family, frequently found as the first element in minor place-names.
dates 1288 1382

spellings sart essart
A piece of land cleared of trees, intended for cultivation.
dates 1148 1154 1279 1313-1314 1317-1318 1360

Formal or informal agreement or concurrence.
places Glusburn
dates 1491

spellings assessment sess sessment
To assess, often abbreviated to ‘sess’, was to settle or determine the amount of tax payable by a community or an individual; to value property subject to a tax.
dates 1485 1555 1580 1671

Photo by Kreuzschnabel CC BY-SA 3.0