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spellings byrlaw
As a word of Scandinavian origin b? had the meaning of ‘village’ or ‘farmstead’ and as a place-name element it is popular in different parts of Yorkshire, for example Austby, Selby, Whitby.
dates 1298 1307 1330 1331 1390 1432 1455 1463 1525 1556 1571 1609 1642

A channel cut to convey surplus water away from a reservoir or aqueduct, designed to prevent flooding or overflowing (OED).
places Holmfirth
dates 1861

An out of the way spot.
places Barnsley
dates 1726

spellings byrdole
The word ‘dole’ and its northern spelling ‘dale’ were commonly applied in the past to portions of land in the town fields, that is the plough-land and pasture held in common.
dates 1437 1483 1523 1579 1650

A word for 'bristle'.
places Bolton Priory
dates 1298-1299

A channel conducting water from a mill.
dates 1716 1782 1788

Of uncertain meaning, possibly ‘on several occasions’, although it may have been time not occupied by a person’s main work.
places Ecclesfield
dates 1686

Meaning uncertain.
places Huddersfield
dates 1693

spellings byework
In coal-mining this was the term applied to jobs done outside the particular task.
dates 1671 1707 1730 1761

In a colliery context, small huts used for accommodation and warmth when they were not working.
dates 1704 1762 1769

spellings caddis
It occurs in contexts that are seldom clear-cut but elsewhere refers to materials such as ribbon or cotton wool, used in padding.
dates 1693 1756

A coarse material or woollen bed-cover.
dates 1579 1631 1674 1758-1762

The jackdaw, but also used as an insult.
places Hunsingore
dates 1468

A carrier or itinerant dealer.
dates 1628 1642

The binding or edging of a garment (OED).
dates 1674

Infirm, feeble, decadent, in poor condition.
places York Halifax
dates 1437 1519 1555


A small cask or tub.
dates 1453 1632 1688

spellings kail
Northern spellings of ‘cole’, applied to various types of brassica, not just cabbage.
dates 1200-1300 1580 1612 1614 1627

It shares the same origin as captive but by the early fourteenth century had come to mean a poor wretch, a person in a piteous condition (OED).
dates 1590 1607 1675

A kind of fur, squirrel skins from Calabria in Italy according to Veale.
dates 1296 1366 1444 1520 1582

A woollen stuff of Flanders, glossy on the outside and woven with a satin twill, chequered in the warp so that the checks are seen on the outside (OED).
dates 1693 1720 1768

Literally ‘cabbage yard’, although the evidence suggests that it may have been more generally ‘garden’.
dates 1270 1290 1346 1349 1518 1575 1621 1693

A light kind of musket which did not require a ‘rest’.
dates 1586 1588 1610

A cup or chalice.
places Swillington
dates 1530

As a verb, to insult, to apply abusive names to somebody, still used with this meaning in dialect.
places Idle
dates 1690

A noun, a dialect word for a coop or hutch for fowl, mostly recorded as ‘hen-call’.
dates 1452 1460 1527 1542 1599 1621

spellings caul
The OED has an entry for ‘cauld’ or ‘caul’ as a Scottish word for a dam, for which the earliest reference is 1805. The Yorkshire word meant ‘dam’, ‘weir’ or 'weir wall' and it is on record from much earlier.
dates 1576 1589 1608 1675 1687 1704 1739

spellings coleyn Cologne
Almost certainly spellings of Cologne, the German city, noted for its lace manufacture.
places Hull Borrowby
dates 1489-1490 1613

spellings camlet chamblet chamlet chamley
A fabric which is almost incapable of definition although the word is said to have first been used of a costly eastern material, apparently made of hair from Angora goats.
dates 1300 1472 1523 1537 1562 1697 1756 1758

A bent piece of wood or iron, used by butchers to hang animal carcases on.
places Richmond Selby
dates 1574 1638 1656

A kind of fine white linen, originally from Cambray in Flanders.
dates 1558 1596 1642 1745

An alternative spelling of ‘champaign’; that is a tract of open country.
places West Riding
dates 1705


A vessel for holding liquids.
dates 1394-1395 1554 1579 1612 1621 1667

A block of wax with a central wick, burnt for light.
places Halifax Farnley
dates 1690

The wick of a candle, formerly made of rushes, tow, or flax, and also of twisted or woven cotton fibre, noted from the Old English period (OED).
dates 1453 1471 1540 1579 1656 1715-1716


In a mining context, the discolouring of water.
places Elland
dates 1779

spellings cannel coal
A hard, bituminous coal which burns with a very bright flame.
dates 1547 1783

A bed with hangings suspended over it.
places West Bretton
dates 1675

A corner or a piece cut off.
places Sheffield
dates 1558

A strong, unbleached cloth made of hemp or flax, a hard-wearing material.
dates 1359 1380 1395 1427 1531


spellings cap-stone
One of the uppermost stones in a free-standing wall, especially a dry-stone wall.
places Bradford
dates 1764

A travelling bag, or more generally a chest, casket or the like.
dates 1558 1567 1579

A knitter of woollen caps; a rare occupational term which is noted first in Ripon.
places Ripon
dates 1465

A maker of caps, which were different from hats in that they had no brim and were made of soft material.
places York
dates 1376

A castrated cock, fattened for the dinner table, sometimes given by a tenant in part payment for his holding.
dates 1297-1298 1445-1446 1603 1609

A hutch or coop in which capons were kept whilst they were being fattened.
places York
dates 1589

Wright has examples of this word in the late 1800s and gives the meaning ‘a leather patch on the toe of a boot or clog’: the verb meant to mend or patch shoes.
dates 1617 1642 1674 1770


In general a two-wheeled vehicle, used to carry heavy loads such as stone and timber.
dates 1280 1360 1399 1541 1575 1576 1596 1615 1756

An implement used for ‘teasing’ or working wool into a sliver.
dates 1382 1410 1454 1535 1552 1579 1622 1681

Evidently a fabric that was suitable for curtains or as a lining.
places York Bossall
dates 1392 1421 1430 1454

The workman who made the wooden boards used for hand cards.
dates 1537 1657 1687 1800

The occupational term occurs in cloth-making towns and cities from the fourteenth century, sometimes as a by-name.
dates 1361 1464 1547-1548 1656 1659

A spittle was originally a small spade, and that meaning survived in Yorkshire into the late eighteenth century at least (OED).
dates 1699-1700

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