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In coal-mining, this was a hole or depression set beneath the lowest landing in a shaft, where water gathered before draining away or being pumped to the surface.
places Farnley Tong
dates 1704 1763

spellings sumpter saddle
Pack-horse accoutrements, but not necessarily workaday in character as references make clear (OED).
places Healaugh Sizergh
dates 1568 1569

Separate, apart, perhaps ‘in pieces’ in some cases.
dates 1274 1424 1508 1552 1620

places York Newark
dates 1439 1496

spellings sun-side
Commonly used of locations which benefited most from the sun.
dates 1379 1510 1556 1571 1592 1703


To take sips, to drink, now chiefly regional.
dates 1642 1725

A girth for a horse, especially one which secured a pack on its back.
places Brandsby
dates 1615

To embroider.
places Ripon
dates 1399-1400

A tenant was said to surrender an estate when he relinquished his interest in copyhold lands, yielding them directly to the lord of the manor, or via the lord to another person. The piece of straw was a symbol of the crops the land was capable of producing.
places Shelf
dates 1545

One who has oversight of something, a word on record from the mid-fifteenth century (OED).
dates 1607 1710

A regional spelling of ‘sister’, a vowel change formerly common in dialect speech.
dates 1538 1541

A regional pronunciation of squab, that is a newly hatched or unfledged bird.
places Hatfield
dates 1558-1559

The noun ‘swage’ is on record from 1374, descriptive of the grooving or moulding on metal objects such as basins, candlesticks and salt cellars.
dates 1490 1503

An anvil for shaping or bending iron.
dates 1690

Substantial pieces of timber, planking.
dates 1508 1520 1541 1600 1634

spellings turn-pit
A deep hole or opening in the ground.
dates 1673 1686 1705

A variant spelling of ‘swalm’, that is an attack of faintness or sickness.
places Hackness
dates 1659

A low-lying piece of grass land subject to flooding.
dates 1636 1642

A keeper responsible for the swans.
dates 1508 1558-1559 1570 1598 1652

A forest court, responsible for controlling the pasturage of swine and other livestock, and dealing with woodland offences.
dates 1349 1547-1557 1619-1621

A dish enjoyed occasionally by the Saviles of Thornhill, even when they were away from home.
places Thornhill
dates 1642

A wooden implement, a handle or lever, although Wright offers a number of other possibilities (EDD).
dates 1297 1568-1569 1606

spellings swared
Regional spellings of square, squared.
dates 1423 1433 1490 1578 1581

The tiny particles of metal which a grindstone throws off when knives and tools are given a cutting edge. It was apparently used as a black dye.
dates 1565 1568 1714

An occasional spelling of swarth, in this instance used as a verb meaning to pare the top sods.
places Whitley
dates 1747-1748

An alternative spelling of ‘sward’, as in green-sward, that is grass land.
dates 1549 1562 1619-1621

Literally ‘black earth’, formerly a frequent minor place-name in east Yorkshire, referring usually to land in the town fields.
dates 1200-1299 1316 1408

To behave noisily or in an unseemly way, to swagger.
places Rufforth
dates 1581

The space covered by a sweep of a mower’s scythe.
dates 1348 1642 1664

A large drag rake, the width of a swath, used for gathering the scattered hay or corn.
dates 1577 1648 1727 1835

To make a splashing or spluttering noise in water.
places Pickering
dates 1671

A spelling of swale, that is a piece of wood or timber.
places Richmond
dates 1574

Swaying of the back, a kind of lumbago when used of a horse.
places Temple Newsam
dates 1565

A word noted by Wright which was used of a pole serving as a lever (EDD).
places Colne Bridge
dates 1620

To singe or burn.
places Wakefield
dates 1760

spellings sour milk
Fresh milk having its natural sweet flavour as distinct from sour milk, that is buttermilk, on record from c.1420 (OED).
dates 1200-1299 1258 1325

Possibly a nickname for a flatterer.
places York
dates 1324 1357

A sweet-flavoured wort, before the hops were put in.
dates 1534 1567 1568

Spellings recorded elsewhere include ‘swally’ and swilly’, so they may derive from the dialect pronunciation of ‘swallow’, in the sense of a hole. In west Yorkshire it refers to a hollow place in the coal stratum, often filled with water.
places Colsterdale
dates 1714

Part of the clothiers’ equipment, a machine for winding yarn, although Wright has several regionally distinct definitions.
places Burnt Yates
dates 1753

A large shallow basket, woven from oak laths and characteristic of Cumbria (CDD).
dates 1395 1562 1658

A verb which related to the movement of water and other liquids.
dates 1747 1783

The fat of a swine.
dates 1576 1587

spellings town-swine
A herdsman in charge of the swine, working on behalf of a township or group of owners.
dates 1377-1378 1379 1472 1579 1608 1668 1747

Manorial by-laws obliged tenants to ‘ring’ their swine at certain times of the year, in order to control their routing for food.
dates 1548 1609 1629

The swingle was a sword-like implement used in the dressing of flax and hemp and it gave rise to both a verb and an adjective (OED); the ‘stock’ was a wooden board on which the fibres were beaten.
dates 1579 1581 1634

In a horse-drawn plough or carriage this is a cross-bar, pivoted at the middle, to which the traces are attached.
dates 1618 1639 1681

The part of a flail that strikes the grain in threshing.
dates 1617 1642

As a noun ‘switch’ was a slender tree shoot or branch, used by farmers as a whip to control animals.
dates 1642 1688

To singe, scorch or burn, a regional word of Old Norse origin although the vocabulary references are quite late.
dates 1246 1404 1472 1681

A sword sharpener (OED) but also the craftsman who made sword sheaths.
dates 1305 1316 1379 1425 1479 1596 1638

A tree of the maple family which is said to have been introduced into Britain but is now thoroughly naturalised.
dates 1653-1655 1741

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