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The stump or stool of a tree from which young shoots spring.
dates 1524 1622 1672

spellings stowing
The action of lopping off branches, or the branches and twigs cut off in that process.
dates 1563 1622

A piece of wood such as a pole or stake, but with a wide range of applications.
dates 1380 1409 1463 1575 1600 1617 1619-1621 1642

An alternative spelling of ‘strait head’ that is a narrow head driven into the coal.
places Shibden
dates 1713

A narrow cloth.
places Hull
dates 1394

spellings strait work
Literally ‘narrow passage’ and ‘narrow work’.
places Farnley Tong
dates 1693 1760

spellings stroke (2)
A strip of iron along the left-hand side of a plough.
dates 1395 1426 1579 1597 1619

An alternative spelling of stroke (1), and strike (1).
places York Ackton
dates 1400 1558

The nail used to secure the iron rim on a cart-wheel.
places Bolton Priory
dates 1320-1321

Low-lying land bordering a river or stream.
places Hubberholme
dates 1580 1637

The fur of the squirrel, taken in the autumn.
dates 1300 1415 1429

A type of nail used to attach the laths, or ‘straw-laths’, in a thatched roof.
places York Beverley
dates 1358 1415 1433 1446-1447

Evidently a tie used in thatching, made of straw or one for attaching straw.
places Ripon
dates 1391-1392

Straw used as a roofing material.
dates 1534

Maybe wood used in the making of a centre, possibly a regional spelling of 'stretcher', that is a time-beam.
places Tadcaster
dates 1699

In many early documents this was not a synonym for brook or beck but a reference to the current or main flow of a river, especially where it provided power by turning a water wheel.
dates 1491 1580 1628 1683 1686

In place-names, this is evidence of an ancient paved way, especially a former Roman road.
dates 1090 1150-1161 1318 1321 1415 1536 1557 1563 1585 1609 1654 1730

A paved road or highway.
places Burley Helmsley
dates 1526 1642

A wooden tool which was used to whet or sharpen a scythe.
dates 1423 1620 1642 1657

A dry measure for corn, peas, etc and the vessel holding that amount.
dates 1316 1527 1534 1558 1642

A metathesized spelling of stirk, a bullock or heifer up to two years old.
dates 1457 1495 1589

The verb could mean ‘to paint an image’.
places York
dates 1639

Applying an individual cutler's mark to a piece he had made.
places Sheffield
dates 1554 1590 1730

A regional word for a kind of coarse linen, a variant of ‘straiken’ which has been recorded in Scotland and north-east England.
dates 1535 1536 1558 1588

Occupational, sometimes for the craftsman who made bow-strings.
places York Bramley
dates 1270 1359-1360 1420

An iron-worker, an alternative of ‘stringer’.
dates 1308 1547

A specialist hearth in iron-making, with the earliest examples found in Durham.
dates 1409 1567-1568

An occupational term.
places Scarborough
dates 1641

A specialist smithy containing a string hearth.
places Shipley
dates 1569 1579

A term for a cow.
dates 1553 1567 1664 1672 1743 1768

Part of the harness for draught horses, found only in the East Riding. It may have been a local alternative for iron traces since the two terms do not occur together.
dates 1570 1575 1582 1624

A denomination of dry measure and the vessel holding that amount.
dates 1533 1577 1601 1676 1728

An itinerant beggar, a vagrant.
dates 1743 1763

Any form of alcoholic spirits used as a beverage.
places Sandal
dates 1674

spellings strum maker
A strum was a wicker-work basket, used in the brew-house to keep the malt in the vat.
dates 1394-1395 1446-1458 1616 1617 1629

A short thick nail.
dates 1394-1395 1504 1535 1615 1715

By the sixteenth century to ‘stub’, or more explicitly to stub up a tree, was to remove the stubs or stumps of those that had been felled, so that the land might be ploughed.
dates 1520 1587 1591 1604 1648 1675 1732 1774

An occupational term, possibly associated with cutting down or woodland management.
dates 1311-1314 1379

A common element in place-names; a coppice wood or brushwood.
dates 1275 1344

A service expected of tenants, to held clearning woods, as a condition of their tenure.
places North Bierley
dates 1548

The tool used to stub up tree roots, whins, docks, etc.
places Barnoldswick
dates 1759

Common in place-names, which identify places where trees were cut down, often so the land could be brought into cultivation.

spellings stuff-maker
The word ‘stuff’ was used of a woollen fabric which was described late in its history as not having a pile (OED).
dates 1653 1657 1675 1709 1785

An early spelling of stoop.
dates 1333 1344 1454 1490 1579

A brain disease in sheep and cattle which causes them to be giddy, to turn round and round.
dates 1301 1446-1458 1642 1653


A footpath or narrow way.
dates 1275 1289 1366 1699

Foul air in a mine.
places Leeds
sources Denison papers
dates 1829

A late alternative of ‘sty’ which may have developed when the meaning of that word was no longer transparent.
dates 1432 1509

Of such a kind, similar.
places Settrington
dates 1600

spellings southern
Southern, that is from the south of England.
places York
dates 1508 1522

A pack-horse.
dates 1350 1400 1617

spellings summer-tree
A summer was a horizontal bearing beam and its use is implicit in Latin documents.
dates 1335 1589 1633 1682 1733

Part of the ancient practice to have cattle, horses or sheep use different pasture grounds at different times of the year.
dates 1349 1577 1598 1608-1609

This referred to a festival held at Midsummer with dancing and dramatic performances, often associated with a light kept burning in the parish church.
dates 1462 1464 1469 1496 1519 1569 1571 1605

Photo by Kreuzschnabel CC BY-SA 3.0